Dietary intake as a cardiovascular risk factor: a cross-sectional study of bank employees in Accra

  • Ivy Priscilla Frimpong 37 Military Hospital
  • Matilda Asante University of Ghana
  • Aloysius Nwabugo Maduforo University of Nigeria
Keywords: dietary intake, macronutrient, micronutrient, fibre, cholesterol, adequacy


Objectives: To determine the dietary and nutrient intakes of bank employees in Accra in relation to recommended dietary intake for the control of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Design: The study was a cross-sectional study.

Methodology: A structured validated questionnaire was used to obtain demographics. A 3-day 24-hour dietary recall and usual food intake questionnaire were used to obtain information on food intakes and dietary pattern of the respondents. Food models, household measures and photos of common dishes as well as household cups and measures were used in order to obtain accurate information regarding the types and quantities of foods and beverages consumed.

Subjects: Convenient sampling was used to select bank branches while simple random sampling by ballot without replacement was used to select 119 bank employees who consented to participate in the study.

Outcome measures: Data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Esha FPro software was used to analyse food nutrients. The nutrient intakes were compared with a standard dietary guideline for adults.

Results: Findings showed significant (p < 0.05) differences in mean energy intake between males and females. Also, the bank employees were consuming more fat (32%) compared with the recommended intake. The average intake of dietary sodium and cholesterol was within the recommended intake levels. All the participants in the study had a mean intake of dietary potassium, fibre, fruits and vegetables below the recommended levels. The major cooking oils used in meal preparation were vegetable and palm oil (46%), followed by vegetable oil (31.9%) and palm oil (21.8%). 

Conclusions: The study evaluated the dietary intake of bank employees, which is an important risk factor for chronic diseases. There is a need to develop plans to provide nutrition education and counselling for adequate nutrient intake and prevention of chronic diseases among bank employees.

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Author Biographies

Ivy Priscilla Frimpong, 37 Military Hospital

Diet Therapy Department, 37 Military Hospital, Accra, Ghana

Matilda Asante, University of Ghana

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Aloysius Nwabugo Maduforo, University of Nigeria

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

How to Cite
Frimpong, I., Asante, M., & Maduforo, A. (2020). Dietary intake as a cardiovascular risk factor: a cross-sectional study of bank employees in Accra. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 33(2), 45. Retrieved from
Original Research