Knowledge, attitude and practices of patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis in Bloemfontein, South Africa
Introduction: In sub-Saharan Africa, a paucity of data exists in respect of the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of patients on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) regarding the dietary adaptations they should make.
Methods: In a descriptive, cross-sectional study, conducted in 2017, questionnaires were administered during structured interviews with 75 participants in five MHD-units in Bloemfontein to assess socio-demographics and KAP regarding the ‘renal’ diet.
Results: The median age was 50.5 years; 70.7% of participants were male. Overall, 49.4% scored low (< 50%) on knowledge regarding restricted foods, food content of restricted minerals, and phosphate binders; 60.0% reported negative attitudes towards the diet, and 61.4% reported poor adherence practices. Participants with tertiary education (28.0%) had significantly higher knowledge scores than participants with only primary school education (6.7%) (95% CI 3.9%; 73.5%), or those who had only partially completed secondary school (17.3%) (95% CI 6.3%; 64.0%). Only 21.0% reported having received written, and 30.7% verbal, nutrition education in their home language, while 24.0% reported never receiving nutrition education in either their home or second language. Having received nutrition education in a home language and/or second language was associated with significantly higher knowledge scores (95% CI 3.7%; 49.5%). Most (77.3%) reported zero to one consultation with a dietitian per MHD year (NKF-K/DOQI recommends at least three/MHD year).
Conclusion: This population on MHD presented with poor KAP regarding the ‘renal’ diet, and inadequate involvement of dietitians in their treatment. Receiving nutritional education in a first or second language significantly increased knowledge of, and insight into, the required dietary adaptations.
Keywords dietitian, home language, KAP, maintenance haemodialysis, nutrition education
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